Posts Tagged ‘1913’

Federal Reserve BoardNote: This is based on this article I posted on April 21, 2012, with the exception that it was about the 99-year charter misinformation, and I have substituted 100-year, which is the alternative misinformation that some people were spreading in 2013 even after the 99-year charter claim had been shown to be false.

There was actually a commenter who alleged a coverup on the part of the Federal Reserve, saying they were lying about there not being a 99-year charter. This is unfortunately not uncommon in what passes for the alternative media these days. It’s not because the Federal Reserve’s website says there was originally a 20-year charter that I say there was a 20-year charter. It’s because there are a variety of historical sources that say so, some of which are non-governmental, and not supporters of the Fed.

The claim that the Federal Reserve was given a 100-year charter set to expire in 2013 isn’t the only myth surrounding its creation.

There is also the myth that the Federal Reserve Act was passed during the Christmas break when most members of Congress were away. That isn’t true, and there is the official record showing the final vote in the Senate was 54-32 on December 18, 1913.

According to Section 4, part 2 of the Federal Reserve Act, 1913, it says of each of the 12 privately owned Federal Reserve Banks:

“To have succession for a period of twenty years from its organization unless it is sooner dissolved by an Act of Congress, or unless its franchise becomes forfeited by some violation of law.“

Since the Federal Reserve Board’s site shows that all 12 original Federal Reserve Banks are still in operation, their 20-year charter must have been extended.

A 20-year charter was also granted to the First and Second Banks of the United States, and both had their charter terminated. Yes, there was a time when privately owned central banks had time-limited charters, and for good reason, due to the havoc they caused.

12 U.S.C. § 341 : US Code – Section 341: General enumeration of powers shows:

“Second. To have succession after February 25, 1927, until dissolved by Act of Congress or until forfeiture of franchise for violation of law.“

Again, since the Federal Reserve Board’s site shows that shows that all 12 original Federal Reserve Banks are still in operation, this provision was either changed with some other time limit, or was never changed.

In fact, it was never changed, and, therefore, their charter doesn’t expire in 2013, and there was never a 100-year charter for the Federal Reserve.

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U.S. House of Representatives

The U.S. Constitution provides for a maximum of one Representative for every 30,000 inhabitants of the United States, and a minimum of one representative per state, in proportion to the decennial (every 10 years) enumeration of the population.

The Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives states on their FAQ:

7. What is the size of the House of Representatives and how is it determined?

The current size, 435 Members, of the House of Representatives, was established by Public Law 62-5 on August 8, 1911 and took effect in 1913.

Article 1, Section 2 of the Constitution provides for both the minimum and maximum sizes for the House of Representatives.

In 1913, the population was estimated to be 97,225,000, which resulted in one Representative for every 218,908 inhabitants. By 2010, the census population count was 308,745,538, which resulted in one Representative for every 709,759 inhabitants.

Only India has a lower degree of representation in its popular legislative chamber. However, the U.S. House could have half its current number of Representatives, and still be constitutional.

Therefore, not only have successive Congresses been tolerant of the status quo, much to the satisfaction of lobbyists who progressively get more value for their lobbying dollars, but so is the Constitution that brought Congress into existence.

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One of the main selling points of a gold standard is the claim that it holds the line on inflation.

However, what is the track record of the gold standard in the U.S. given the earliest reliable numbers?

From the Bureau of Labor Statistics Inflation Calculator, we see:

  • From 1913 to 1932, while the U.S. was on a gold standard domestically and externally, inflation was 27.5%, or 1.45% annualized.
  • From 1933 to 1970, while the U.S. was on a gold standard externally, inflation was 66.4%, or 1.79% annualized.

We see that going off the gold standard domestically did correspond with higher inflation, but only marginally so.

While low inflation is generally regarded as a good thing, deflation isn’t. What the gold standard didn’t prevent was the massive deflation of 31.5% from 1929 to 1933, which greatly contributed to the annualized inflation rate of 1.45% from 1913 to 1932, instead of the 2.27% it would’ve been if there was no deflation from 1929 to 1933.

That’s significantly higher than the 1.45% annualized inflation from 1933-1970, when the lack of a domestic gold standard, according to gold standard proponents, should’ve pushed inflation far higher.

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Dr. Ravi Batra, progressive economist and professor of economics at SMU, stated his support for a partial gold-backed currency as a replacement for the U.S. dollar.

On April 30, 2010, on the Thom Hartmann show, he stated at 57:30:

I don’t know if we will ever have one world currency in my lifetime, but currency should be backed up, partially at least, by gold, so that nobody can just inflate currency to fix the problem and leave workers dry. Wages have been stagnant at the same time, so we need to have some backing for the currency as well, and that should be gold.

The U.S. dollar was on a full gold standard until 1933, when most domestic gold was confiscated and transferred not to the U.S. Treasury, but the illegal Federal Reserve. After the confiscation, the price was raised from $20.67 USD to $35 an ounce. From then until August 15, 1971, the U.S. was on a partial gold standard, with foreign currency directly convertible into gold at the rate of $35 an ounce. Since then, gold has been able to freely float, and has hit all time highs since the economic turbulence of 2008, now over $1200 an ounce.

The call for a return to a gold-backed currency truly crosses the political divide, with a progressive economist singing the praises of a gold standard along with proponents of the libertarian Austrian School of Economics.

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